Luteolin and TNBC
Is it possible for celery to inhibit TNBC metastases?
Salman Hyder and his team at the University of Missouri (see article on the Dovepress website) implanted cultured human TNBC cells into mice lungs and gave the mice luteolin, a naturally occurring substance found in some vegetables and herbs. Luteolin inhibited the migration and viability (ability to live) of TNBC cells. It even caused apoptosis (cell death). In the in vitro (cell culture) portion of the study, pretty low levels of luteolin were needed (10µM) to significantly inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, which may play a role in cell migration according to some additional tests the researchers performed. In vivo studies in mice using an injectable dose of 20mg/kg luteolin daily or more had a significant effect on the tumor metastases.
Sources of Luteolin
Luteolin is found in vegetables like celery or broccoli and herbs such as thyme and parsley. Other luteolin-rich foods in order of content include celery hearts (higher than celery stalks), hot peppers, rutabagas, spinach, parsley, thyme, peppermint, basil, artichoke leaves, rosemary, sage, sweet peppers, olive oil, lemons, water spinach, lettuce, kohlrabi, Chinese kale, gourd, celeriac, brussel sprouts, chamomile tea, and beets. Please see the secretsofnaturalhealing.blogspot.com. Data obtained from published measurements in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry indicates that 1 stalk of celery weighs about 50 g. There is 1.31mg luteolin/100g or 2 stalks of celery. See NutritionFacts. Fresh thyme has 51mg/100g. Dried parsley has 19.75mg/100g where 1c is approximately 25.6g (see Aqua-calc). Fresh peppermint contains 11.33mg luteolin/100g. Well, this is a leap, but at the 20mg/kg of luteolin required for an inhibitory effect on cell metastases, I would need 1,136 mg of luteolin daily at my weight of 57 kg. I'm looking at more than 20 stalks of celery per day. When taking bioavailability (as the mice received injectable luteolin) into account, one may even need to eat twice as much. IV formulations may be on the horizon but this would take a while to develop.